The application of science and technology to the detection and investigation of crime and administration of justice isn’t new India. Though our ancestors doesn’t recognize forensic science in its existing form, but scientific systems in one manner or the opposite appear to be to possess been trailed within the analysis of crime. Its detailed Indian reference is originated in Kautilya’s as `Arthashastra,’ which was about 2300 years ago. Indians studied various patterns of the papillary ridges over 1000s years ago. It is assumed that they recognized the persistency and individuality of fingerprints as they used as signatures.
The use of fingerprints as signatures by illiterate people in India, introduced centuries ago, was considered by some people as ceremonial only, till it had been scientifically proved that identification from fingerprints was infallible.
Government Chemical Examiner Laboratory
Poisoning being one among the earliest methods of killing a person’s being, widespread knowledge was gathered regarding its production and use. Throughout the 19th century, when the cases of death due to poisoning posed a problem to the enforcement agencies, a requirement was felt for isolating, detecting and estimating various poisons absorbed in the human structure.
The first Chemical Examiner’s Laboratory was established for this determination at the Madras Presidency, under the Department of Health, during 1849. In Future, alike laboratories were established at Calcutta (1853), trailed by one each at Agra (1864), Bombay (1870) and Lahore (now in Pakistan) to supply scientific support to the criminal justice delivery system within their limited means. These laboratories were generally assisted by the medico-legal work and equipped to handle toxicological analysis of viscera, qualitative analysis of food, drugs, biological analysis of blood and semen stains, etc. and various materials on which excise are often levied. The neighboring States and Union Territories wont to get analytical analysis support from these laboratories.
After making significant progress within the identification of poisons, various attempts has been done to recognize people, specifically criminals during a rather disorganized manner. One among methods was that Policemen will effort to remember convict’s face to acknowledge him later if present in another crime. Another attempt has been made by the Criminal Investigation Department (CID) by maintaining the records with the help of Photography of every identified criminal together with entire sketch of his appearance. HTTP://MODERNFORENSIC.IN
Finally in 1879, Alphonose Bertillon developed the science of “Anthropometry” for criminal identification by taking body measurements. Thus a „Bureau of Anthropometric Measurements‟ was introduced to require care of the anthropometric records of criminals, was well-known in 1892 at Calcutta. This method stayed widespread till approximately 1900.
First Finger Print Bureau was established in Calcutta by Sir Edward Henry, I.G.P., Bengal by scrapping the procedure.
Thus, India becomes the primary country within the world to begin the personnel identification solely on the basis of fingerprints.
DEPARTMENT OF EXPLOSIVE
The Department of Explosives was established at Nagpur in 1898, when the primary chief inspector of explosives was appointed .Later on 5 local workplaces at Calcutta, Bombay, Agra, Madras and Gwalior. Department developed competence to produce a scientific solution by examining clue materials with regard to explosives also because the possible causes of explosions.
In 1902, First police commission in India recommended the establishment of Criminal Investigative Department sections of Police, which developed facility for fire-arm examination, police photography, handwriting and fingerprints examination alongside other scientific aids.
Government examiner of questioned document, shimla
This department is now under the control of B.P.R.&D and was setup by the central government for expert examination of questioned documents. Presently GEQD Kolkata, Shimla and Hyderabad have been merged with CFSL, Kolkata, Chandigarh and Hyderabad respectively.
Serologist to the Govt of India
Realizing the importance of Forensic Serology in examining the human blood and semen and its stain identification in criminal investigations, a company remarked as Serology Department’ was recognized in Calcutta in 1910. Dr. Hankin assisted within the founding of this department.
State Forensic Science laboratory, Calcutta
The first state forensic lab in India was recognized within the year 1952 at Calcutta by merging Government Chemical Examiners Laboratory. This laboratory seems to be entirely functioning within the year 1953.
Central Finger Print Bureau
On the recommendations of the Royal Police Commission of 1902-03, the primary Central Finger Print Bureau (CFPB) in India was established in 1905 at Shimla.
Central Detective Training School at Calcutta
CDTS, Calcutta, a premier detective training school in India, was established during 1956 and was co-located (in an equivalent premises) with the CFPB, Calcutta. The aim of building a faculty to impart training in scientific investigation of crimes like substance abuse , terrorism, explosion, crime against women, investigation of road accidents and enforcement of traffic laws, etc. to the trainee from police, Armed forces and many organizations.
Central Forensic Science Laboratory, Calcutta
The first Central Forensic lab was established at Calcutta during 1957. To start with, this laboratory was organized into four basic disciplines that are Forensic Physics, Forensic Chemistry, Forensic Biology and Forensic Ballistics. During the year 1965, the second central forensic science lab was established at Hyderabad, The CFSL, Hyderabad initially established analytical facilities within the disciplines of Forensic Physics, Forensic Chemistry and Forensic Biology. The Central Forensic lab , Chandigarh, was established, within the year 1933 at Lahore was shifted to Chandigarh during 1961. Presently CFSL center of excellence Chemical Sciences, is functioning under the Directorate of Forensic Science Services located at CGO complex, Lodhi Road, New Delhi.
Teaching of Forensic Science in the Universities
The question of introducing criminology and forensic science as the way of training at the university level in India was reserved with the Vice Chancellors of several universities during 1950, nevertheless the progress made in this track was not encouraging. Accordingly, three Universities namely, University of Sagar, Madras and Patiala started undergraduate and postgraduate courses in forensic science. It was additionally recommended that, as a preliminary step in this direction, one institute under the Central Government must be recognized in Delhi. The Committee recommended those two courses viz. Master’s Degree in Criminology and Master’s Degree in Forensic Science should be organized in this Institute, as well Diploma courses for in-service personnel.
Footprint Section of Criminal Investigation Department
During the year 1915, a Footprint Unit was recognized below the CID, Government of Bengal, which helped the police authorities to spot criminals through the examination of footprints collected from the scene of crime.
Note Forgery Section in Criminal Investigation Department
A Section for detecting forgery in currency notes was recognized under the CID, Government of Bengal in 1917 for the examination of forged currency notes.
Likewise, Government Mint and Security Printing Units at Nasik also established their own lab for identifying cases of counterfeit and forged currency notes.
As the threat of firearms grew, a minor Ballistic Laboratory was established in 1930 along side an arms expert under the Calcutta Police to affect the examination of firearms. Other State CID also followed by establishing a little ballistics laboratories to assist the police within the criminal investigation.