SEARCHING OF THE CRIME SCENE AND SEARCHING METHODS
Searching of the crime scene and collection of the evidences are backbone of a criminal investigation. The primary aim of the searching of the crime scene is to link the suspect, victim and the scene of crime and become capable of answer the questions such as
- Who perpetrated the crime?
- How the crime was committed?
- Why the crime was committed?
- Which circumstances lead to commission of crime?
Indoor crime scene: In indoor crime search the investigating officer must perform the search pattern in mainly accurately. This is performed by dividing each room and assigning an individual person to each room to collect the evidences, take the door as the starting point and examine the roof, floor, and wall to search the entire scene.
Outdoor crime scene: When the scene is open and spread in wider area, it involves the team of investigating officers and a leader to guide them. The leader may apply any of the above method in documenting the scene. http://modernforensic.in
Vehicle search: If the searching of the crime scene involves a vehicle, the vehicle search must be carefully planned. The inside and outside area of the vehicle should be carefully searched, as the cross – transfer of the fingerprint, blood, fiber, hair may be carried out. The nature of the crime determines how detailed the search must be.
Night search: Searching of the crime scene during night are difficult, as the boundaries are not established and the weather and other circumstances may destroys the evidences.
There are several methods for searching of the crime scene. How an investigator carries out the searching depends upon the area, location and the size of crime scene. The area to be searched must include entry and exit point of the crime and the investigator must use relevant instruments such as fingerprint kit , flashlight , magnifying glass , forceps to reveal latent prints , and other evidences. The investigation is carried out by the main investigator to get an overview of the crime scene.
- STRIP/LINE SEARCHING METHOD: In searching methods the investigators starts from the entry points at one end of the scene and walk straight to other side. The method is useful where the boundaries are well established as the boundaries indicates the beginning and ending of the crime scene. One or two investigators should search the area properly so that no evidence could be left behind.
GRID SEARCHING METHOD: The grid search pattern is performing strip method or line method two dimension by two investigating officers forming a grid.First the boundaries is well established, searcher moves in north-south direction while another searcher moves in east-west direction. It provides a double examination of the same spot.
- SPIRAL SEARCHING METHOD: The spiral search pattern involves only one searcher. The investigator moves in an inward direction from the boundaries to the center of the crime scene or from the focal point of the scene and carried out in spiral with increasing circumference until the whole crime scene is covered. Spiral search from circumference to center is helpful because the searcher moves from the area of the least evidence to the area of more evidence. The spiral method is mainly carried out in bomb blast cases.
- QUADRANT SEARCHING METHOD: In zonal method, the scene is divided into the small quadrants further the quadrants are divided into zones, then each searcher assign to each zone. This searching method is mainly used when the crime occurred in large space.
- WHEEL SEARCHING METHOD: The wheel search pattern employs several person start searching from the center or focal point of the scene to the boundaries in a straight line or from the boundaries to the focal point of the scene. This searching method is not preferred as the area between the rays are not searched.